The Khmers rouge, led by Pol Pot, ruled Cambodia from 1975 to 1979 and orchestrated the Cambodian genocide, which resulted from the enforcement of its social engineering policies. Estimates of the total number of deaths resulting from Khmer Rouge policies, including disease and starvation, range from 1.7 to 2.5 million out of a 1975 population of roughly 8 million.

Killing Fields is the name given to a number of sites in Cambodia where collectively more than a million people were killed and buried by the Khmer Rouge regime. The mass killings are widely regarded as part of a broad state-sponsored genocide. In 1979, Vietnam invaded Democratic Kampuchea and toppled the Khmer Rouge regime.